Foto Files No 03 1996
This format was originally developed for IRIX. The master files of the SVT High Definition Multi Format Test Set are SGIs. Frame 200 of the ParkJoy sequence in this set (15722.sgi, 38402160, 47.4 MB) was used in WebP comparisons.
Foto Files No 03 1996
The full specification of PNG was released under the approval of W3C on 1 October 1996, and later as RFC 2083 on 15 January 1997. The specification was revised on 31 December 1998 as version 1.1, which addressed technical problems for gamma and color correction. Version 1.2, released on 11 August 1999, added the iTXt chunk as the specification's only change, and a reformatted version of 1.2 was released as a second edition of the W3C standard on 10 November 2003, and as an International Standard (ISO/IEC 15948:2004) on 3 March 2004.
Other image attributes that can be stored in PNG files include gamma values, background color, and textual metadata information. PNG also supports color management through the inclusion of ICC color profiles.
Adobe Fireworks (formerly by Macromedia) uses PNG as its native file format, allowing other image editors and preview utilities to view the flattened image. However, Fireworks by default also stores metadata for layers, animation, vector data, text and effects. Such files should not be distributed directly. Fireworks can instead export the image as an optimized PNG without the extra metadata for use on web pages, etc.
Compared to GIF files, a PNG file with the same information (256 colors, no ancillary chunks/metadata), compressed by an effective compressor is normally smaller than a GIF image. Depending on the file and the compressor, PNG may range from somewhat smaller (10%) to significantly smaller (50%) to somewhat larger (5%), but is rarely significantly larger for large images. This is attributed to the performance of PNG's DEFLATE compared to GIF's LZW, and because the added precompression layer of PNG's predictive filters take account of the 2-dimensional image structure to further compress files; as filtered data encodes differences between pixels, they will tend to cluster closer to 0, rather than being spread across all possible values, and thus be more easily compressed by DEFLATE. However, some versions of Adobe Photoshop, CorelDRAW and MS Paint provide poor PNG compression, creating the impression that GIF is more efficient.
There is thus a filesize trade-off between high color depth, maximal metadata (including color space information, together with information that does not affect display), interlacing, and speed of compression, which all yield large files, with lower color depth, fewer or no ancillary chunks, no interlacing, and tuned but computationally intensive filtering and compression. For different purposes, different trade-offs are chosen: a maximal file may be best for archiving and editing, while a stripped down file may be best for use on a website, and similarly fast but poor compression is preferred when repeatedly editing and saving a file, while slow but high compression is preferred when a file is stable: when archiving or posting.Interlacing is a trade-off: it dramatically speeds up early rendering of large files (improves latency), but may increase file size (decrease throughput) for little gain, particularly for small files.
Adobe's Fireworks saves larger PNG files than many programs by default. This stems from the mechanics of its Save format: the images produced by Fireworks' save function include large, private chunks, containing complete layer and vector information. This allows further lossless editing. When saved with the Export option, Fireworks' PNGs are competitive with those produced by other image editors, but are no longer editable as anything but flattened bitmaps. Fireworks is unable to save size-optimized vector-editable PNGs.
When the color depth of a truecolor image is reduced to an 8-bit palette (as in GIF), the resulting image data is typically much smaller. Thus a truecolor PNG is typically larger than a color-reduced GIF, although PNG could store the color-reduced version as a palettized file of comparable size. Conversely, some tools, when saving images as PNGs, automatically save them as truecolor, even if the original data use only 8-bit color, thus bloating the file unnecessarily. Both factors can lead to the misconception that PNG files are larger than equivalent GIF files.
For removing ancillary chunks, most PNG optimization tools have the ability to remove all color correction data from PNG files (gamma, white balance, ICC color profile, standard RGB color profile). This often results in much smaller file sizes. For example, the following command line options achieve this with pngcrush:
Zopfli and the LZMA SDK provide DEFLATE implementations that can produce higher compression ratios than the zlib reference implementation at the cost of performance. AdvanceCOMP's advpng and advdef can use either of these libraries to re-compress PNG files. Additionally, PNGOUT contains its own proprietary DEFLATE implementation.
Since icons intended for Windows Vista and later versions may contain PNG subimages, the optimizations can be applied to them as well. At least one icon editor, Pixelformer, is able to perform a special optimization pass while saving ICO files, thereby reducing their sizes. FileOptimizer (mentioned above) can also handle ICO files.
No. The Privacy Rule does not limit how a covered entity may disclose information that has been de-identified. However, a covered entity may require the recipient of de-identified information to enter into a data use agreement to access files with known disclosure risk, such as is required for release of a limited data set under the Privacy Rule. This agreement may contain a number of clauses designed to protect the data, such as prohibiting re-identification.30 Of course, the use of a data use agreement does not substitute for any of the specific requirements of the Expert Determination Method. Further information about data use agreements can be found on the OCR website.31 Covered entities may make their own assessments whether such additional oversight is appropriate.
NARA does not have pension files for Confederate soldiers. Pensions were granted to Confederate veterans and their widows and minor children by the States of Alabama, Arkansas, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Mississippi, Missouri, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, and Virginia; these records are in the state archives or equivalent agency.
Most Union army soldiers or their widows or minor children later applied for a pension. In some cases, a dependent father or mother applied for a pension. The pension files are indexed by NARA microfilm publication T288, General Index to Pension Files, 1861-1934 (544 rolls) which is also available online at Ancestry.com (for a fee).
You may do research in Civil War military service and pension files in person at the National Archives Building, 700 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW, Washington, DC 20408-0001. Begin your research in the Microfilm Reading Room. Staff is available there to answer your questions.
Requests for records that have not been microfilmed, such as the pension files and most Union CMSRs, must be submitted on appropriate forms between 8:45 a.m. and 3:30 p.m. Monday-Friday. The request forms and the microfilmed indexes are all available in the Microfilm Reading Room. Pension files and other original records are not "pulled" from the stacks after 3:30 p.m. or on Saturday, but can be viewed during all regular research hours if the pull request was submitted during the weekday hours noted in the previous sentence.
Please be aware that these are very popular records. NARA strives to make the records readily available to all researchers on an equal basis. In order to provide timely, equal access, NARA limits the number of original records which you may request for any scheduled records pull. The limit is four original files for each researcher for each pull during a business day up to 24 files in a given day. Because of the number of requests for original records, we are unable to provide advance service on these records. Please do not ask us to verify if we have a file in advance of your arrival or ask us for expedited service.
Listings for the Record Groups (RGs) listed below in Microfilm Resources for Research: A Comprehensive Catalog of National Archives Microfilm Publications. Washington, DC: National Archives and Records Administration, 1996. Available online or for purchase.
Flexible Image Transport System (FITS) was initially developed by astronomers in the USA and Europe in the late 1970s to serve the interchange of data between observatories and was brought under the auspices of the International Astronomical Union in 1982. In 2012, FITS is still in widespread use as a data interchange and archiving format by astronomers. FITS is a fileformat designed to store, transmit, and manipulate scientific images and associated data. The term "image" in the standard's name is loosely applied and FITS files often contain only non-image data. Astronomers view their images as data for analysis rather than simply as pictures to look at. From its beginning, FITS was seen as a transport format for more than a still image intended for printing or viewing in two dimensions. FITS was designed to facilitate the unambiguous transmission of n-dimensional regularly spaced data arrays, an n-cube. These multi-dimensional arrays may be 1-D spectra, 2-D images or data cubes of three or more dimensions. Two-dimensional tables containing rows and columns of data can also be stored in a FITS file. The substantial use of FITS for data that even astronomers would not class as image data led to consideration to change the full name for the FITS format, but the proposal was rejected. For the same reason, in this resource, FITS is categorized primarily as a dataset format, with use for image data as secondary. 041b061a72