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Learn About the History and Appreciation of Indian Art with NCERT Book


History of Indian Art Book Class 12 Pdf 87 directx gamphone ass




Are you interested in learning about the rich and diverse history of Indian art? Do you want to download a free pdf of the NCERT textbook on Indian art for class 12? Do you wonder what the number 87 has to do with this topic? If you answered yes to any of these questions, then this article is for you. In this article, we will explore the following aspects:




History Of Indian Art Book Class 12 Pdf 87 directx gamphone ass




  • What is Indian art and how it reflects the cultural diversity of India



  • What is the NCERT textbook on Indian art and how it covers the various periods and styles of Indian art



  • What is the significance of the number 87 in relation to this topic



  • How you can download a free pdf of the NCERT textbook on Indian art for class 12



  • How you can use directx gamphone ass to enhance your learning experience



Introduction




What is Indian art?




Indian art is a broad term that encompasses the artistic expressions of the people who have lived in the Indian subcontinent over thousands of years. Indian art reflects the diversity of religions, languages, cultures, and regions that have shaped India's history. Indian art includes various forms, such as paintings, sculptures, architecture, textiles, pottery, jewelry, metalwork, and more. Indian art also draws inspiration from various sources, such as nature, mythology, spirituality, philosophy, literature, and politics.


What is the NCERT textbook on Indian art?




The NCERT textbook on Indian art is a series of two books that introduce students to the history and appreciation of Indian art. The first book, titled An Introduction to Indian Art Part-I, covers the ancient and medieval periods of Indian art. The second book, titled An Introduction to Indian Art Part-II, covers the medieval and modern periods of Indian art. The books are written by experts in the field and are based on the latest research and scholarship. The books are also richly illustrated with photographs, diagrams, maps, and timelines.


What is the significance of the number 87?




The number 87 has a special meaning in relation to this topic. It is the number of chapters in both books combined. The first book has 40 chapters and the second book has 47 chapters. Each chapter covers a specific period or style of Indian art and provides an overview of its features, characteristics, themes, techniques, and examples. The number 87 also represents the diversity and continuity of Indian art across time and space.


Main body




Indian art from ancient to medieval times




In this section, we will briefly summarize some of the major periods and styles of Indian art from ancient to medieval times. For more details, you can refer to the chapters in the first book of the NCERT textbook on Indian art.


Indus Valley Civilization




The Indus Valley Civilization, also known as the Harappan Civilization, was one of the earliest urban civilizations in the world. It flourished from around 2500 BCE to 1900 BCE in the northwest of India and Pakistan. The Indus Valley Civilization is known for its sophisticated urban planning, sanitation, drainage, and irrigation systems. It is also known for its artistic achievements, such as seals, terracotta figurines, pottery, beads, jewelry, and bronze sculptures. Some of the famous examples of Indus Valley art are the dancing girl of Mohenjo-daro, the priest-king of Mohenjo-daro, the unicorn seal, and the Pashupati seal.


Mauryan and Sunga art




The Mauryan Empire was the first pan-Indian empire that ruled from around 322 BCE to 185 BCE. It was founded by Chandragupta Maurya and reached its peak under Ashoka, who embraced Buddhism and spread its message across Asia. The Mauryan art is characterized by its monumental stone sculptures, pillars, and stupas. Some of the famous examples of Mauryan art are the lion capital of Sarnath, the Ashokan edicts, and the Sanchi stupa. The Sunga dynasty succeeded the Mauryan dynasty and ruled from around 185 BCE to 73 BCE. The Sunga art is marked by its decorative and narrative reliefs on stupas, railings, gateways, and pillars. Some of the famous examples of Sunga art are the Bharhut stupa, the Sanchi gateways, and the Vidisha pillar.


Gandhara and Mathura schools of art




The Gandhara and Mathura schools of art emerged during the Kushana period, which lasted from around 1st century CE to 3rd century CE. The Kushanas were a nomadic tribe that conquered parts of northwestern India and Central Asia. They patronized Buddhism and facilitated its spread along the Silk Road. The Gandhara school of art developed in the region of present-day Pakistan and Afghanistan. It was influenced by Greco-Roman art and depicted Buddha and other Buddhist figures in a realistic and humanistic manner. Some of the famous examples of Gandhara art are the standing Buddha of Lahore, the fasting Buddha of Lahore, and the Bamiyan Buddhas. The Mathura school of art developed in the region of present-day Uttar Pradesh. It was influenced by indigenous traditions and depicted Buddha and other Buddhist figures in a stylized and idealized manner. Some of the famous examples of Mathura art are the seated Buddha of Sarnath, the headless Kanishka statue, and the Kushana coins.


Gupta and post-Gupta art




The Gupta Empire was one of the most prosperous and influential empires in Indian history. It ruled from around 320 CE to 550 CE and is considered as the golden age of Indian culture. The Gupta art is characterized by its refinement, elegance, grace, and harmony. It also reflects the revival of Hinduism and the development of classical Sanskrit literature. Some of the famous examples of Gupta art are the Ajanta cave paintings, the Dashavatara temple at Deogarh, and the iron pillar at Mehrauli. The post-Gupta period witnessed the rise and fall of various regional kingdoms, such as the Vakatakas, Pallavas, Chalukyas, Rashtrakutas, Pala-Senas, Pratiharas, Cholas, Hoysalas, etc. The post-Gupta art is marked by its regional diversity, experimentation, innovation, and synthesis. It also reflects the growth of various sects and movements within Hinduism, Buddhism, and Jainism. Some of the famous examples of post-Gupta art are the Ellora cave temples, the Kailasanatha temple at Kanchipuram, the Brihadisvara temple at Thanjavur, and the Khajuraho temple complex.


Temple architecture and sculpture




Temple architecture and sculpture are among the most prominent forms of Indian art from ancient to medieval times. Temples are not only places of worship but also symbols of cosmic order, divine manifestation, and cultural identity. Temples are built according to various styles, such as Nagara, Dravida, Vesara, and Kalinga, depending on the region, period, and patronage. Temples are also adorned with various sculptures, such as Shikhara, Gopuram, Mandapa, Garbhagriha, Vimana, and Amalaka, depending on the function, 71b2f0854b


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